**Rotational Symmetry of Space-Time**

© 2013, Dr. Henryk Frystacki

Rotational symmetry of Einstein's space-time introduces not only positive but also negative values for lengths, height and width, and even backward movement of time. However, the negative directions of time and space do not appear with negative values in our observation environment but show altered physical properties: time stagnation, functional inversion or extremely accelerated processes.

Such accelerated processes may appear for example as different kinds of particle spins or simultaneous appearances of one and the same particle in two different locations. Any extreme acceleration of processes in relation to our perception of time progress leads to a quantized superposition of a nearly infinite number of images that shape our registration of nature, space and masses within. The actual observations of these continuously repeated reduced four-dimensional images (three of space and one for time) cause interferences in our seeming space-time continuum, determining the outcome of each measurement individually, i.e. the observation of a particle, or a wave, or even double images of particles at completely different locations.

The extreme acceleration of processes in relation to our perceivable time progress can be considered as the contribution of a fifth dimension, on top of Einstein's four dimensions. Because of this extreme acceleration, any point in our universe can be reached at any instant. This way, everything across the universe is connected with each other until it is observed, thus making it an irretrievable event of the past.

All known types of masses can be considered to travel with the speed of light on this fifth dimension, because they acquired relative speed of light during their individual generation processes. Therefore, our time came nearly to a standstill in relation to the fifth dimension; Einstein's classical physics of relative time dilation for reduced four dimensions merely works the other way round. Therefore, introducing the fifth dimension, classical physics can be still used to grasp all peculiarities of quantum physics within the apparent continuum of space and time.

Simplified Model:

**Figure 1: Classical space-time asymmetry shown by clock hands**

One solution to eliminate the deficiencies of quantum physics, and even include gravity features without contradiction in Einstein’s space-time grid, may be derived by the review and extension of a simplified model; a reduced, only two-dimensional space-time grid of the special theory of relativity. This grid uses an x-axis for a length, expressed with the 3 o’clock position of a clock’s hand in figure 1, and a y-axis for time, expressed with a 12 o’clock position of another equally long hand of this clock. These two clock hands represent two of our four glass tubes above, and demarcate the length-time sector of Newton’s physics. Just to remember, the special theory of relativity introduced time dilation and length contraction into this picture, and the general theory of relativity additionally mass caused curvatures that distort this two-dimensional x-y-grid into one direction of a third z-dimension. The 9 o’clock hand takes on the job of the time dilation. The z-dimension reflects its own location below the appearance of any 3 o’clock length with 12 o’clock time. Remember at this stage the thin and long glass tube along a 3 o’clock hand that we turned into its original time axis on the 12 o’clock hand and this original time axis glass tube on the 12 o’clock hand that has been turned into the 9 o’clock position, simultaneously.

A closer look at this two-dimensional space-time grid shows that there is still plenty of room for enrichment with an ongoing rotational symmetry of space-time, causing an unexpected existence of two completely hidden space-time quadrants for statics and dynamics at the relative speed of light and a third, opposing space-time quadrant. The construction reveals the necessity of three-dimensional space to keep this rotational symmetry in balance, which can be proven with your right and left hands. With stretched out thumb, index, and middle fingers of your right hand, at right angles to each other, you can point with the thumb at 3 o’clock, with the index finger at 12 o’clock and with the middle finger at 9 o’clock. Your middle finger leaves the plane that has been defined by the thumb and index fingers because it is below length and time progress, as just mentioned. Now you can point with the thumb, index and middle fingers of the left hand into the opposite directions to keep your right hand construction in balance. One finger of your left hand serves as the 6 o’clock hand of extreme acceleration. The remaining two fingers of your left hand build together with the 3 o’clock thumb of your right hand your individual three-dimensional space around you in any point you may choose throughout the universe. Einstein’s general theory of relativity describes his space-time curvatures as the grid’s 9 o’clock reaction to the presence of masses. A 6 o’clock acceleration hand or glass tube is missing in his descriptions because of the assumption that it is not possible for baryonic masses to break the speed of light barrier. In all probability this may be true for precipitated baryonic masses, but not for the generation process of these masses. A fraction of the energy field of the 6 o’clock hand can be certainly accelerated up to the speed of light and a fraction of the energy field of the 12 o’clock hand simultaneously slowed down to zero from its speed of light level. The production of an electron and a positron just out of an electromagnetic pulse, already state-of-the-art, is the best practical example.

The entire universe can be rolled out from an original bubble, below today’s event horizons of length and time, because each clockwise following quadrant appears with relatively lower energy density. The energy reversal gets visible, if we look at three following quadrants. Today, vacuum is considered to consist only of one kind of empty space that may be filled up with energy density of the scalar energy fields. This will change. The introduction of the reverse space-time quadrant allows the discussion of an energetic countercharging of vacuum of space, in contradiction to all current pictures of cosmology, because it is framed and sealed off by two adjacent quadrants, and behaves mathematically as the reciprocal. This way, gravity and the cosmological constant can be nicely brought onto the scale of the fundamental forces, which was not possible so far.

Usual space-time pictures show also negative hands of length and time, indicating an opposite direction of space and passed time. Alternatively, we can decide on two coinciding points in space and time that serve as a pivot. From this pivot we draw a space-length into any direction in space. This always positive length is our 3 o’clock hand. The observed time progress along this length starts from the pivot and heads towards 12 o’clock. What we got now is the asymmetrical picture of two equally treated clock hands, pointing into perpendicular directions. This seeming asymmetry with positive length and only forward running time makes much more sense because an observer gets in any position always a complete cosmic sphere around, offering only positive distances to leave the center with any heading, even in case of returning from another point in space back to the starting point. Any distance in space could be chosen for a 3 o’clock hand, but the maximum possible view into the past, caused by the limited speed of light, determines the maximum length that can be turned into the original time axis, if accelerating from zero up to the speed of light. The universe is much bigger than this observable size because of the limited speed of the incoming information.

This clock hand model shows an astonishing fact: If we take the length of a moving vehicle and accelerate this vehicle along this length axis, the clock hand of this length will turn anticlockwise from the 3 o’clock position around the pivot. It would turn fully into 12 o’clock if the vehicle could reach a relative speed of light. Due to our knowledge today, however, reaching the speed of light is not possible because an infinite amount of energy is needed for such acceleration of today’s known types of masses. The turn of any fixed 3 o’clock hand length into the 12 o’clock time direction corresponds precisely to the proven formulas of relativistic mechanics if we draw a superimposed linear speed scale from zero to the speed of light on an equally long 12 o’clock hand in its original 12 o’clock position and then match a speed caused rotation of the 3 o’clock hand with the projection length of this hand onto the speed scale. The relativistic length contraction can be simply derived by the projection of the hand in the new position onto the original 3 o’clock position, drawing a perpendicular line from this original position towards the end of the hand in the new position: A remaining observer will notice the shrinking of the object by this projection shortage factor and the moving observer constant dimensions of the vehicle, but a shorter way to the destination point in space, ruled by the same factor. The glass tube’s turn into time caused this shortage of length.

This is not weird at all if we treat time and length equally, just like nature does. Turning the length hand from 3 o’clock fully back to 12 o’clock contracts the original length to an invisible minimum and dilates time within the vehicle relatively to the starting location to a maximum.

This time dilation can be simply expressed by turning the original time hand from the 12 o’clock position anticlockwise into the 9 o’clock position. The projection of the moving hand onto the original 12 o’clock hand axis leads precisely to the time dilation factor of relativistic mechanics and Einstein’s special theory of relativity if the turn is synchronized with the length rotation from 3 o’clock towards 12 o’clock. The impact is dramatic because a remaining observer cannot even notice the maximum contracted vehicle at the speed of light with a relative standstill of time because of its relative length contraction. The 9 o’clock position indicates a full energy storage function in time, as all passengers at the theoretical speed of light would not age in relation to our progress of time. Any battery on board stays for the remaining observer in the starting location as new as just bought. The so-called relativistic mass of the vehicle increases dramatically in the eye of the remaining observer if its speed comes very close to the speed of light. The necessary energy to break the speed of light barrier is theoretically infinite. The core of a hydrogen atom, a proton, has only an extremely small rest mass, but it can be shot through thick plates of lead after its acceleration close to the speed of light because it acquired a tremendous relativistic mass. This mass increase requires such unbelievable amounts of acceleration energy that it seems impossible for all known types of masses to ever break the speed of light barrier. This is exactly the point from where the global search for exotic matter, like wimps, starts, and where strange neutrinos are already under severe investigation, moving with the speed of light, or extremely close to, or, being still a matter of dispute, even slightly beyond this natural barrier.

The rotary point of the clock’s hands has been shifted from an unidentifiable zero of length and time to the minimum value of quantum physics. Looking at my infinitesimal time and length pivot, Gerhard Börner, astrophysicist at the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich University and the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching near Munich, had problems to actually relate unknown types of vacuum energy and scalar fields to the infinitesimal values of length and time. The infinitesimal length and time of physics is related to the known types of energy by the uncertainty principle of quantum physics. The knowledge of this uncertainty principle became a part of physics at high school. Equalizing the energy impacts on each own quadrant, however, the pivot of an infinitesimal time and length appears automatically because the concept of space-time collapses at these low limits of length and time, as quantum indeterminacy becomes absolute. The Compton wavelength gets into the range of the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole. We don’t have to go into these scientific aspects: Looking at a rotational symmetry of space-time, the necessity of an infinitesimal scale for length and time becomes logical and even visible because it serves as pivot. There is no other way. The 6 o’clock hand and the unexpected reverse quadrant offer a possible and feasible solution for the completion of the quantum field theory.

In case we increase the distance of an observation in space to a considerable extent, the hands are turning anticlockwise as well, because of the accumulating embedded energy and further look into the past that is based on a limited speed of light. The observable edge of the universe is not a distance – it is the 12 o’clock time sphere of the past. Some scientists explain this fairly logical situation with an inflating balloon, reducing humans to two-dimensional creatures crawling along the surface. Every flat creature then perceives the same situation on the surface of the balloon, independently of the individual location. Einstein explained this phenomenon with the perception of a bug crawling along a bent bough of a tree, but not being aware of it.

The extension of two clock hands for space distance and time, with opposing negative values that mark 9 o’clock static energy density levels and 6 o’clock dynamic quantum mechanical process potential below an observer’s measurable horizons of length and time, leads to a space-time grid with four space-time quadrants instead of one space-time quadrant with length and time only. Three additional space-time quadrants below the event horizons of length and time superimpose our visible one between 12 and 3 and seem to deliver the missing energy contributions for an accelerating expansion of the universe. The astonishing thing about this is that this value can stay constant, as it is fixed by the geometry and trigonometry of a rotational symmetry, and by the entire and therefore constant energy content. The quadrants are interwoven and subject to active and passive relative speed of light. The contribution of the 9-12-quadrant appears as a sort of an inner space-time tension that affects energy densities and the contribution of the 3-6-quadrant as a sort of energy fluctuation with certain probabilities.

The 6-9-quadrant appears with the reversal of energies and, therefore, energy gain, seemingly against all known physical laws. The contribution of the 3-6-quadrant is most remarkable, as it provides our 12-3-quadrant with the dynamic speed of light features, like quantum mechanical particle spins that can be aligned in space and magnetic flow at the relative speed of light, though we expected only static features at the speed of light because of the maximum time dilation of events and processes. Parts of this energy cross can be rolled up in an anti-clockwise direction as to recover energy storage in time. The natural tendency, however, is a slow clockwise roll out of energy for space inflation, comparable with the driving function of the balance wheel of a mechanical clock, increasing the diversity court of quantum phenomena and heading towards augmented disorder. The rotational symmetry reduces space inflation considerably in comparison to all wrong models where quantum vacuum and the cosmological constant have been equated. The picture gives the impression to deal with some kind of Wankel engine in its exhaust mode. Instead of any fuel, it needs three types of inner tensions and Newton’s exhaust area. Nature tries to delay decay processes as much as possible, coming up with an incredible variety of solutions. The development of life is probably based on this desperate attempt to restore and maintain the higher order of energetic constructions by any means.

The 3, 9, and 12 o’clock hands are well-known in classical physics and correctly described by figure 1. New is just the interpretation that the quadrant between 9 and 12 is always fully present and not only Einstein’s reserve area for forced time dilations. Remember that Einstein considered his space-time grid to be straight in case of having no masses around. The balanced rotational symmetry generates exactly this perception in Newton’s quadrant. New is also the 6 o’clock hand that explains all peculiarities of quantum physics because of an extreme acceleration of processes against the 3 o’clock hand and 12 o’clock time with a repetition sequence. Probabilities appear on the screen. Completing the already known parts of this rotational space-time symmetry with the 6 o’clock hand, our universe seems to be accompanied by innumerable parallel universes that come and go within any moment of our existence. Friends of an esoteric magnetism may take notice of this feature, because the 6 o’clock hand induces magnetism as an interference effect on quadrant boundaries which is then combined with time static electricity to an electromagnetic wave, or to a particle, with its electric charge, and its magnetic quantum mechanical spin.

**Aspects of Quantum Physics**

The basic theories of elementary particles need getting used to because each material particle is described as excitation state of fundamental energy fields with quantum mechanical aspects. The classical observations of nature fade in the imagination of theoretical physicists, but a quantized approach to forces and energies of nature fails already from the start, looking only at a simple electron. It behaves either as spatially concentrated particle or as a spatially spreading wave, only depending on the set-up of the experiment. Quantum mechanics tries to overcome this strange and inexplicable situation by the superposition of several possible states and conditions. There is only a probability that one of these states and conditions actually takes place. The whole of states is expressed by wave functions with a natural development. A single result appears accidentally. This way, quantum mechanics can predict atomic processes with extraordinary high precision and in accordance with experimental examinations.

Some physicists consider quantum mechanical results to be completely subject to observations. This means that the wave function contains all possible results in an indefinable intermediate state and only the actual observation itself decides upon the selection from possible results. The 6 o’clock hand opens a wide space to revise this interpretation that consciousness of an observer is in fact involved in the selection of a result out of the quantum mechanical variety of all possible results.

The time line of a 6 o’clock length hand coincides with our space distances of the 3 o’clock hand and runs extremely accelerated in relation to our 12 o’clock hand time line. All events along the 6 o’clock hand happen simultaneously in our reality, compressed into areas below readable space distances and any time progress. This brings us to the question of necessary repetition sequences to constantly interact with the space-time construction of our perception. A single event cannot be predicted, but many events of the same kind should appear with certain probabilities exactly because of these repetition sequences.

Accepting these peculiarities of quantum mechanics, it is possible to calculate the probabilities and whereabouts of events with astonishingly precise results. The actual measurement causes a seeming collapse of Schrödinger’s wave function of probabilities, extracting one possibility out of the repetition sequence. The process of measurement and evaluation is considered to represent a disturbance of the wave function that leads to the then actual and noticeable result. In the phase before the actual measurement, everything was in a state of uncertainty. This truly unsatisfactory interpretation of quantum mechanics indicates the incompleteness of this theory. Deterministic laws on the 6 o’clock hand within a rotational symmetry cause statistic fluctuations that lead to quantum mechanical appearances in our reality between 12 o’clock and 3 o’clock. They could even explain quantum entanglement of particles and particle features across long distances in space. Quantum entanglements are today investigated in several laboratories around the world, including the already successful teleportation of quantum states. The effect even has an impact back on the past, because the rotational construction theoretically keeps any past event still present, with the possibility of a recall just by observation. Some strange results of the duality of particle and waves, influencing the past, can be explained by the features of such a rotational construction.

Allowing a 9 o’clock acceleration hand to enter the cosmic stage puts statistics and probabilities on the agenda. Reaching a certain point of evolution, different following physical states are possible. The observed system appears to accidentally move on to a new state, never in total chaos, but determined by a degree of probability. Repeating such a transition process many times shows different following states but is based on a calculable probability. The radioactive decay of a Uranium atom may happen in an instant or only after many millions of years. Its decay is not predictable. The radioactive decay of a certain quantity of Uranium, however, follows proven decay laws of probability. A quantum mechanical system has its scope of possibilities, choosing one of these during its existence in space and time. Each and every selection is the realization of one possible configuration. This event is determined by the scope of possibilities and by the selection processes of the past.

Transferring this quantum mechanical principle to the evolution means to permanent grope for new organisms. Organisms that survive open the door to further developments on that stable base. Our new cosmic acceleration organ is then the feeler and antenna to navigate through an immense variety of change within the given scope of possibilities. This quantum mechanical scope of existence is considerably wider and much more versatile than Darwin’s because it does not end with species-richness; it covers even consciousness and all other mental faculties and thoughts of creatures in the universe, with some determination aspects, but an endless variety of solutions up to our seeming free will of action.

This quantum mechanical picture may reveal the glass tube construction to be the real Creation. All configurations and builds within this construction are basically timeless, but some are then chosen to be realized above an event horizon of time and space, embedded in the superimposed, fluctuating and interacting energy fields of an appearing three-dimensional vacuum of space and the pace of time.