**Contact:**

Dr. Henryk Frystacki

henryk.frystacki@fryvest.com

**Dark Energy from Big Bang of the Universe towards Big Freeze and Beyond**

**Project Summary**

**1) Introduction**

The theory and its model aim at an explanation of the dominant role of dark energy in the relativistic construction of our universe and the processes from the origin to a predicted end and beyond. The idea is to integrate dark energy into the standard model of physics, using equivalent forces of the standard model for the impact of space expansion and stabilization of galaxies. The cosmological constant in Einstein's field equations is today used for the description of space inflation. The design of a dark energy model that balances energies and forces above and below the thresholds of appearing space and time seems to actually meet the requirements to describe both processes without the introduction of dark matter. The connections to the general theory of relativity and to the production of elementary particles become visible, as well a link to quantum physics and to electromagnetism. An alternative explanation to dark matter has been found.

**2) Hypotheses**

Before the Big Bang, the universe was in a state of equilibrium with 100% of dark energy with extremely high tension, without the existence of space and time.

This equilibrium can be sufficiently described with four identical energy oscillations: Three oscillations are phase shifted, the first by a quarter of their wavelength, the second by half of their wavelength, the third by 3 quarters of their wavelength in relation to the first oscillation.

They cannot interact with the result of a destructive interference because of relativistic issues.

The resulting opposing oscillations, shifted by half of a wavelength against each other will cause an extremely high tension in a totally blocked energy system. Space, time and any process of physics are impossible.

A strong enough interference will break up this equilibrium, causing complex superpositions of vibrational energy and generating space, time and baryonic matter.

However, dark energy will remain an energy wave below the Planck barriers of length and time, detectable only indirectly by space expansion and in form of a dark matter effect, the latter because of an inverted acting part of dark energy as a logical mathematical and physical result of 180 degrees phase-shifting.

After an unimaginably long period, matter and radiations will completely disappear and the universe will face the Big Freeze.

Big Freeze means that all existing positive energy forms have developed back into 100% negative dark energy.

As soon as the equilibrium state of the dark energy waves has been reached, the universe disappears completely in an instant and remains just like at the beginning without space and time, but ready for a new start.

**3) Consequences**

The hypotheses can be transformed into a simple, transparent model that covers the total energy balance above and below the Planck barriers of length and time.

The model has to work with an equivalent of compression and decompression to balance the predominant dark energies with relativistic aspects, as long as they are observed from an asymmetrical position in spacetime.

The model visualizes the general theory of relativity, the generation of baryonic matter and the relation and links to quantum physics in very simple forms but sufficiently for the discussion.

Dark Matter can be replaced by a reverse acting dark energy field, working against the expansion of space and stabilizing entire galaxies.

The feature of disappearing space, caused by an equilibrium of dark energy, could probably be used intentionally with appropriate engineering solutions. Eliminating thin space layers in front of a spaceship in the direction of its destination might lead to dark energy drives that could even exceed the speed of light without contradiction to the general theory of relativity.

**4) Remaining experimentally accessible proofs**

The structure and the movements of galaxies could be calculated with this model, introducing inverted dark energy instead of dark matter. If this calculation leads to correct results, the first milestone has been reached to confirm the validity of the model, opening simultaneously a new page in physics.

A working solution to eliminate a very thin layer of empty space is the second milestone. In case of a success, it will change our views on the speed of light limit.

**5) Explanations to seemimgly negative dark energy:**

Figure 5: Dark Energy and the Expansion of the Universe

Figure 5 explains the impact of dark energy, being a negative energy in relation to the energy of matter. As shown in this picture, dark energy expands the size of the universe with increasing speed, until it reaches its maximum size lmax at tmax. The sum of decreasing positive matter energy is moving slowly along the curve of dark energy impact until the limits of space and time have been reached. Less and less time is needed to inflate the universe more and more. Figure 5 shows a picture of spacetime and slowly loss of matter over extremely long periods of time. The influences of G-H, E and M, as well as non-linear developments in the course of time must be superimposed.

Any increasing of mass or relative speed of the matter aggregation will slow down or nearly stop an individual mass point in figure 5 on the curve by relative time dilation and length contraction, however at the expense of another positive energy that is shifted forward, because of being the origin of this energy increase. The inverted dark energy sector G-H hinders expansion, but the attempts to stop expansion are not successful as the sectors E and M contribute to the expansion by continuously reducing radiations.

Dark energy in spacetime ST can be considered as one huge single wave which seems to be static because of the unimaginably long period of its existence. An increase of spacetime corresponds to the increasing area between l'1,2,3 of the total matter energy and the 12 o'clock position in the figures 3 and 4.

Figure 2 and 3 of the model generate trigonometric circular functions, such as sine and cosine. These energy functions represent positive and negative energies in relation to their rotation direction in the model. An increase of defined positive energy rotates counterclockwise and the increase of negative energy rotates clockwise. They have to be superimposed with all relativistic aspects.

Figure 2 and 3 demonstrate simple constellations, but shows the entire principle, perfectly. Considering an equal contribution to 5% matter from all four sectors, the relation of Dark Energy : Inverted Dark Energy(dark matter effect) : Baryonic Matter results in 71.25 : 23.75 : 5, meaning the relations of (ST+E+M) : (GH) : Matter. The sum of matter has been estimated with 5%. These relations correspond to the actual measurements of astrophysicists.

**6) Math Multiverse**

It is possible to transfer the pure math multiverse into four different pictures of asymmetrical perspectives:

Spacetime ST can be considered as a three-dimensional sphere and we are inside on its surface: The movement into any direction of our three-dimensional space rotates exactly this length towards the timeline. Since photons move at the speed of light, all light paths have rotated completely into the timeline. Therefore, we look in each space direction towards the center of this three-dimensionally spread time sphere back in time, all the way back to the big bang. The superposition leads to our four-dimensional spacetime ST. The curvature of the ST-sphere is created and shaped by the opposing sector G-H. Masses cause dents on its surface, with curvatures as described by the general theory of relativity.

From an observation point in sector G-H, the ST-sphere has been turned inside out. The opposing spacetime sector ST is responsible for the curvature of the G-H sphere’s surface.

With an ideal phase shift of +90 degrees the existence of sector E neither will be noticed in spacetime ST, nor in sector G-H. Deviations will cause interferences in both with aspects of dualism. Shifting an observation point into this sector E, space of ST disappears and the timeline spreads into three dimensions of a growing sphere. Any event in the space of spacetime sector ST will be sort of memorized on the increasing surface of this inflating sphere like on a hard disk.

Turning the sphere of sector E inside out, describes the sphere of the sector M. With an ideal phase shift of -90 degrees, the existence of M will not be registered in ST or G-H. Deviations will cause interferences in both with aspects of dualism.

This purely mathematical considerations help to formulate the set of differential equations for the complicated superpositions of all involved energy fields and to find the approaches to eliminating space layers.