**Contact:**

Dr. Henryk Frystacki

henryk.frystacki@fryvest.com

**Dark Energy from Big Bang of the Universe towards Big Freeze and Beyond**

**Project Summary**

**1) Introduction**

The theory and its model aim at an explanation of the dominant role of dark energy in the construction of our universe and the processes from the origin to a predicted end.

The idea is to integrate dark energy into the standard model of physics, using equivalent forces of the standard model for the indirectly measurable impact of space expansion.

The design of a model that balances energies and forces above and below the well-known thresholds of appearing space and time seems to actually meet the requirements. The connections to the general theory of relativity and to the production of elementary particles become visible, as well a link to quantum physics and electromagnetism.

An alternative explanation to dark matter may have been found.

**2) Hypotheses**

Before the Big Bang, the universe was in a state of equilibrium with 100% of dark energy with extremely high tension, without the existence of space and time.

This equilibrium can be sufficiently described with four identical oscillations: Three oscillations are phase shifted, the first by a quarter of their wavelength, the second by half of their wavelength, the third by 3 quarters of their wavelength in relation to the first oscillation. They cannot interact because of relativistic issues.

The resulting opposing oscillations, shifted by half of a wavelength against each other will cause a destructive interference and extremely high tension in a totally blocked energy system. Space, time and any process of physics are impossible.

A strong enough interference will break up this equilibrium, causing complex superpositions of vibrational energy and generating space, time and baryonic matter. However, most of the dark energy will remain below the Planck barriers of length and time, detectable only indirectly by space expansion and in form of a dark matter effect, the latter because of an inverted acting part of dark energy as a logical mathematical and physical result of 180 degrees phase-shifting.

After an unimaginably long period, matter and radiations will completely disappear and the universe will face the Big Freeze.

Big Freeze means that all existing energy forms have developed back into 100% dark energy. The reverse acting part with a dark matter effect stays as it is.

As soon as the equilibrium state of the four main oscillations of the system has been reached, the universe disappears completely in an instant and remains just like at the beginning without space and time, but ready for a new start.

**3) Consequences**

The hypotheses can be transformed into a simple, transparent model that covers the total energy balance above and below the Planck barriers of length and time.

The model has to work with an equivalent of compression and decompression to balance the predominant dark energies below Planck length and Planck time with relativistic aspects.

The model visualizes the general theory of relativity, the generation of baryonic matter and the relation and links to quantum physics.

Dark Matter could be replaced by a reverse acting dark energy field, working against the expansion of space and stabilizing entire galaxies.

The fact of appearing and disappearing space, caused by dark energy, could be probably used intentionally with appropriate engineering solutions. Eliminating space in front of a spaceship in the direction of its destination might lead to dark energy drives that could even exceed the speed of light without contradiction to the general theory of relativity.

**4) Remaining experimentally accessible proofs**

The structure and the movements of galaxies could be calculated with this model, introducing inverted dark energy instead of dark matter. If this calculation leads to correct results, the first milestone has been reached to confirm the validity of the model, opening simultaneously a new page in physics.

A working solution to eliminate a very thin layer of empty space is the second milestone. In case of a success, it will change our views on the speed of light limit.

**5) Explanations to negative dark energy:**

Figure 5: Dark Energy and the Expansion of the Universe

Figure 5 explains the impact of dark energy, being a negative energy in relation to the energy of matter. As shown in the picture, dark energy expands the size of the universe with increasing speed, until it reaches its maximum size lmax at tmax. The sum of decreasing positive matter energy is moving slowly along the curve of dark energy impact until the limits of space and time have been reached. Less and less time is needed to inflate the universe more and more. Figure 5 shows a picture of spacetime and slowly loss of matter over extremely long periods of time. The influences of G-H, E and M must be superimposed.

Any increasing of mass or relative speed of the matter aggregation will shift an individual mass point in figure 5 backwards by relative time dilation and length contraction, however at the expense of another positive energy that is shifted forward, because of being the origin for this energy increase. The inverted dark energy sector G-H hinders expansion, but both attempts to stop expansion are not successful as the two sectors E and M contribute to the expansion by continuously reducing the total of electromagnetism and radiations.

Dark energy in spacetime ST can be considered as one huge single wave which seems to be static because of the unimaginably long period of its existence. An increase of space corresponds to the increasing area between l'1,2,3 of the total matter and the 12 o'clock position in figure 3. The projection of this circular movement shows a cosine function. The expansion of space can therefore be calculated as an integral of this cosine function, with the result of the sine function of figure 5 that is distorted by influences of matter and G-H. The calculation for a single galaxy is more complicated, because of the inhomogeneous distribution of masses. The general theory of relativity can be used with the gravitational aspects of sector G-H.

The model seems to be simple, with its circle functions of trigonometry. Actually, it is not that simple, because of the 4 axes with impacts of relative time dilations and relative length contraction. Getting used to these relativistic influences, makes the understanding of the model easier.

Figure 3 of the relativistic model generates trigonometric circular functions, such as sine and cosine. These energy functions, representing positive and negative energies, just in relation to their rotation direction in the model.

They have to be superimposed with all relativistic aspects. Figure 3 demonstrates simple constellations, but shows the entire principle, perfectly. Considering an equal contribution to 5% matter from all 4 sectors, the relation of Dark Energy : Inverted Dark Energy(dark matter effect) : Baryonic Matter results in 71.25 : 23.75 : 5, meaning the relations of (ST+E+M) : (GH) : Matter. The sum of matter has been only estimated with 5%.